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PostgreSQL: Documentation: 16: 1   What Is PostgreSQL?

The ability to modify its operation on the fly makes it uniquely suited for implementing new storage structures and applications rapidly. PostgreSQL is an enterprise-grade database that provides scalability, performance, availability and functionality. It is open source and is suitable for use cases across industries and use cases. PostgreSQL is the most mature open-source SQL database, and it’s a high-performance, open-source alternative to proprietary databases like Oracle and Microsoft SQL Server. PostgreSQL is also accessible and compatible with many different tools, such as Dbeaver for administration and visualization or QGIS for spatial data connections. Finally, PostgreSQL has strong compatibility with a wide range of tools and technologies.

It also supports parallelization of reading queries, Just-in-time (JIT) compilation of expressions, and nested transactions (via savepoints) ensuring great performance and efficiency. PL/PGSQL is a native procedural language provided by PostgreSQL which has different modern features. It backs the JSON data type which is lightweight and ensures the flexibility included in a single package. As a result, PostgreSQL supports several programming languages and protocols including Perl, Ruby, Python, .Net, C/C++, Java, ODBC, and Go. PostgreSQL supports Unicode, international character sets, multi-byte character encodings, and it is locale-aware for sorting, case-sensitivity, and formatting.

What is PostgreSQL

For example, it is single-threaded, so it is difficult for a more capable Slave to keep up with a less capable Master. They often consist of a universal core that is adapted for various specific database products. These tools mostly share the administration features with https://www.globalcloudteam.com/ the open source tools but offer improvements in data modeling, importing, exporting or reporting. Since then, the PostgreSQL Global Development Group, a dedicated community of contributors continues to make the releases of the open-source and free database project.


It is also one of the finest databases when it comes to CSV support. Simple commands like “copy from” and “copy to” help in the fast processing of data. If there is an import issue, it will throw an error and stop the import immediately.

What is PostgreSQL

A role is generally regarded to be a user (a role that can log in), or a group (a role of which other roles are members). Permissions can be granted or revoked on any object down to the column level, and can also allow/prevent the creation of new objects at the database, schema or table levels. In particular, table constraints are not currently inheritable. All check constraints and not-null constraints on a parent table are automatically inherited by its children. Other types of constraints (unique, primary key, and foreign key constraints) are not inherited. In PostgreSQL, a schema holds all objects, except for roles and tablespaces.

Thus, setting up and managing MySQL databases is simpler than PostgreSQL. On the other hand, PostgreSQL is ideal for large data sets and large numbers of users when you need feature-rich database management. PostgreSQL (pronounced post-gress-Q-L) offers the full functionality of Structured Query Language (SQL) — a standard programming language for database management — and many other feature enhancements and extensions.

Architecture of PostgreSQL

MariaDB’s purpose-built and pluggable storage engine offer support for workloads that previously needed a vast array of specialized databases. This allows it to be a one-stop shop for organizations, be it on the cloud or commodity hardware they like. In the present day, almost every software or web application requires a database in the backend. The increase of transactions occurring per second and the terabytes of data stored calls for a stable and flexible framework for housing and serving up that data. PostgreSQL enables developers to use PITR (Point-In-Time Recovery) to restore databases to a specific moment in time when running data recovery initiatives. Because PostgreSQL maintains a write ahead log (WAL) at all times, it logs every database change.

What is PostgreSQL

Innodb’s rollback segment-based implementation of the MVCC mechanism is superior to PG’s XID-based MVCC mechanism that stores old and new data together. New and old data stored together, the need to regularly trigger VACUUM, will bring excess IO and database object locking overhead, causing the overall concurrency of the database to decline. And VACUUM cleanup is not timely, it may also trigger data bloat. The replication feature is asynchronous and has significant limitations.

How Does PostgreSQL Work?

You can even go as far as to write your codes from different programming languages without recompiling your Database, and define your data types. You can query 70 external data sources (including Mysql, Oracle, CSV, hadoop …) as if they were tables in your own database. PostgreSQL is an open-source, highly stable database system that provides support to different functions of SQL, like foreign keys, subqueries, triggers, and different user-defined types and functions. It further augments the SQL language proffering up several features that meticulously scale and reserve data workloads. It’s primarily used to store data for many mobile, web, geospatial, and analytics applications. This is an object-relational database management system, And it uses SQL (Structured query language) as its primary query language.

  • MySQL has been maintained by Oracle ever since its inception in 1995.
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  • The increase of transactions occurring per second and the terabytes of data stored calls for a stable and flexible framework for housing and serving up that data.
  • Want to learn more about PostgreSQL and help build the community?
  • In 1994, Berkeley graduate students Andrew Yu and Jolly Chen replaced the POSTQUEL query language interpreter with one for the SQL query language, creating Postgres95.
  • It offers a single full-featured version, unlike MySQL, which offers several different community, commercial and enterprise editions.

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postgresql performance solutions

MySQL supports a very small part of the SQL syntax (ANSI SQL standard). No support for recursive queries, generic table expressions (Oracle’s with statement) or window functions (parser functions). The general relational database has a limited length of about 8k strings, and the infinite length TEXT type is limited in functionality and can only be accessed as external big data. The TEXT type of PostgreSQL can be accessed directly, and the SQL syntax has built-in regular expressions, indexing, full-text search, or xml xpath. … PostgreSQL does not have this restriction, and text can support various sizes.

This generally requires that the primary key should not be too long and the primary key should preferably be incremented sequentially when inserting, otherwise it has a big impact on performance. In addition to storing normal data types, it also supports storing. PostgreSQL provides an asynchronous messaging system that is accessed through the NOTIFY, LISTEN and UNLISTEN commands. A session can issue a NOTIFY command, along with the user-specified channel and an optional payload, to mark a particular event occurring.

It is reliable as it has a large built-in community support network. PostgreSQL is a fault-tolerant database thanks to its write-ahead logging. PostgreSQL is highly extensible as its operation is catalog-driven, i.e. information is stored in databases, columns, tables, etc. PostgreSQL not only holds an increased amount of information in its catalogs but also details on the data types, access methods, functions, and so on.

In larger database systems where data authentication and read/write speeds are essential, PostgreSQL is hard to beat. PostgreSQL supports a variety of performance optimizations typically found only in proprietary database technology, such as geospatial support and unrestricted concurrency. This makes PostgreSQL extremely efficient when running deep, extensive data analysis across multiple data types. Expert developers and commercial enterprises who understand the limitations of traditional database systems heavily support PostgreSQL. They work diligently to provide a battle-tested, best-of-breed relational database management system.

You will learn how to create a project where you can create, read, update, and delete data. Many startups and large enterprises use PostgreSQL as the main data storage solution for products, solutions, and internet-scale applications. Supply chain performance can be optimized by using this open-source DBMS as a storage backend. As a result, this allows companies to reduce the operation cost of their business. Write operations in PostgreSQL can be performed concurrently without the need for read/write locks. Indexes are used to speed up queries when dealing with large amounts of data, which allows databases to find a specific row without having to cycle through all of the data.